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Por: Dr. Simón Mesber
Médico Cirujano-UCV

BENEFICIOS DEL CACAO PARA LA ENFERMEDAD CARDIACA CORONARIA 10 Aug 2005



Throughout history, cocoa has been described as a medicine for many ailments. New research suggests that cocoa may also have a beneficial effect on heart disease and stroke. A research team in Southampton in England, led by Dr Denise O'Shaugnessy, has shown that drinking a cup of cocoa can prevent potentially fatal blood clots. Dr O'Shaughnessy will present this data at the XXth Congress of the International Society on Thrombosis & Haemostasis in Sydney tomorrow.

When blood clots lodge in our brain or heart there are potentially fatal consequences such as stroke or heart attack. Cells in our blood called platelets are necessary for clotting to occur and O'Shaughnessy's research team showed that cocoa inhibits platelet function.

O'Shaughnessy said, "Cocoa contains a substance called flavinoids, which are also present in red wine. Flavinoids can be preventive for coronary heart disease; however our research has uncovered another ingredient in cocoa which may be responsible for the platelet inhibition. This finding may well lead to important new therapies to prevent heart disease and stroke. But it may also mean that a nice hot cup of cocoa may also take on new importance for people in high risk categories."

BLOOD TYPES and DVT - DO THEY MATTER? Research out of the Netherlands has shown that your blood type can increase the risk of suffering deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Blood types in humans include A, B, AB or O. The study showed that people with blood type A, B or AB had an increased risk of DVT.

Researcher, Dr Vania Morelli, from the Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands, said "A non-O blood type strongly increases the risk in people who carry a variant of a protein (called Factor V Leiden) involved in blood clotting. This variant protein is found in around 3% of people of European descent".

"Our research suggests that information on blood type may have a role in the management of DVT, especially in carriers of this variant protein. It is obviously important to know what your blood group is!" said Morelli.

Dr Morelli will present this research at the XXth Congress of the International Society on Thrombosis & Haemostasis in Sydney tomorrow.


LIPITOR REDUCE ATAQUES CARDIACOS Y EL RIESGO DE INFARTO EN PACIENTES DIABETICOS(20 Jun 2005)

Data presented at the annual meeting of the ADA have shown that patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) on Lipitor who lowered their cholesterol to well below currently recommended levels experienced significantly fewer heart attacks and strokes than those who achieved recommended levels.1

These findings are from a subgroup analysis of the 5-year TNT study, involving 1,500 people with diabetes and CHD with an LDL-Cholesterol level of <3.34 mmol/L randomised to treatment with either 10mg/day or 80 mg/day of Lipitor.2 Mean LDL-C levels at 3 months were lower in the 80 mg group (1.86 mmol/L) compared to the 10 mg group (2.54 mmol/L).1

Those patients who received atorvastatin 80 mg also experienced 25 percent fewer major cardiovascular events (CHD death, non-fatal heart attacks, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and fatal or non-fatal strokes).1 Furthermore, event rates in both the Lipitor 10 mg and Lipitor 80 mg arms were lower than in other secondary prevention trials. 2

“These data are the first to demonstrate the CV benefits of lowering LDL-C beyond recommended guidelines with atorvastatin 80 mg in this high-risk diabetic population. Moreover, patients achieved these results without additional muscle risks,” said James Shepherd, MD, Clinical Academic Consultant, Department of Pathological Biochemistry, University of Glasgow Medical School, Glasgow, UK.

In the UK about 1.8 million people are known to have diabetes.3 Death from coronary heart disease are up to five times higher for people with diabetes, while the risk of stroke is up to three times higher.4

TNT was an investigator-led trial coordinated by an independent steering committee and was funded by Pfizer. The study enrolled men and women between 35 and 75 years of age in 14 countries.4

The TNT study is part of the Atorvastatin Landmark Program, an extensive clinical trial program with more than 400 ongoing and competed trials involving more than 80,000 patients.

In this subgroup analysis, the musculoskeletal safety profile of atorvastatin 80 mg was comparable to atorvastatin 10 mg, and the incidence of repeat liver enzyme elevations was 0.4 percent in the 10 mg group and 0.8 percent in the 80 mg group.1 TNT and the diabetes subgroup analysis build upon the well-established safety profile of Lipitor. TNT is the longest study to date evaluating the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin 80 mg.

Atorvastatin is a prescription only medicine licensed in the UK to lower elevated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in patients with high levels of blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolaemia) when response to diet and other nonpharmacological measures is inadequate. Atorvastatin is currently not licensed for the prevention of coronary or cardiovascular events.

New Treatment for Brain Vascular Disorder, Rush University Medical Center
(27 Jul 2005)
Rush University Medical Center will be the first in Chicago and among the first hospitals in the nation to offer a promising new treatment for arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) following its approval by the FDA on July 21. Onyx® Liquid Embolic is a sealant to block abnormal connections between veins and arteries in the brain using minimally invasive endovascular techniques.

As a result of high blood flow and pressure imbalances, AVMs in the brain are at risk of hemorrhage, or rupture, which can lead to stroke, severe disability and even death. Onyx is a liquid polymer that fills the AVM to seal it off and reduce the risk of bleeding or rupture. The minimally invasive procedure involves snaking a catheter through the blood vessels in a very controlled manner to deliver the embolic liquid to the tangled web of abnormal arteries and veins.

"Onyx is a vast improvement over previous embolization substances which would harden too quickly requiring a number of treatment sessions to achieve AVM occlusion," said Dr. Demetrius Lopes, a neuroendovascular specialist at Rush and a member of the Chicago Institute of Neurosurgery and Neuroresearch medical group (CINN).

"Onyx is a welcome addition to the treatment of AVM in the brain. It can be of use for patients who are deemed too risky for surgery or as an adjuvant to prior radiosurgery and open surgery," said Lopes. "Endovascular embolization can reduce the size and vascularity of the AVM, thereby facilitating safer and easier surgical resection."

Patients with AVMs have a 3 to 4 percent risk per year of hemorrhage from their AVM. When a patient suffers such a bleed, there is a 10% chance of dying, and a 20% chance of a stroke and permanent neurologic problems.

AVMs are believed to be congenital and are formed prior to birth. Approximately 80 percent of the estimated 300,000 Americans with AVMs will experience few, if any, symptoms. Those who do experience symptoms vary greatly in severity. In addition to seizures and headaches, AVMs can also cause a wide range of neurological problems such a muscle weakness, loss of coordination, dizziness, memory deficits, and mental confusion.

Rush University Medical Center is an academic medical center that encompasses the 600 staffed-bed hospital (including Rush Children's Hospital), the Johnston R. Bowman Health Center and Rush University. Rush University, with more than 1,270 students, is home to one of the first medical schools in the Midwest, and one of the nation's top-ranked nursing colleges. Rush University also offers graduate programs in allied health and the basic sciences. Rush is noted for bringing together clinical care and research to address major health problems, including arthritis and orthopedic disorders, cancer, heart disease, mental illness, neurological disorders and diseases associated with aging.

The Chicago Institute of Neurosurgery and Neuroresearch is one of the nation's leading organizations for the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of people with brain and spine disorders. Originally founded in 1987, CINN is the Midwest's largest team of neurosurgeons known for their pioneering treatments in minimally invasive techniques. Through a network of seven hospitals spanning two states, CINN treats more patients with brain tumors and spine disorders than any other physician group in Illinois.

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Nuevas pautas sobre el colesterol para pacientes de alto riesgo

14 de julio de 2004.– Los expertos del Programa Nacional de Educación sobre el Colesterol (NCEP) dicen ahora que las personas con un alto riesgo de muerte por ataque al corazón o enfermedad cardiovascular necesitan tratamiento más intensivo para controlar el colesterol.

El contenido esencial de las recomendaciones del grupo es que, cuando se trata del nivel de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL) o «colesterol malo», cuanto más bajo mejor. Las nuevas recomendaciones indican que casi todos los pacientes de alto riesgo con niveles de colesterol LDL de 100 mg/dl o más deben comenzar a tomar medicamentos reductores del colesterol.

Las recomendaciones fueron enunciadas por un grupo de trabajo del Panel de Tratamiento de Adultos III (ATP III) del NCEP. El Instituto Nacional de los Pulmones, el Corazón y la Sangre (NHLBI), el Colegio Americano de Cardiología (ACC) y la Asociación Americana del Corazón (AHA) están de acuerdo con las nuevas recomendaciones.

Para leer más al respecto, vea el siguiente artículo de la Asociación Americana del Corazón: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?i dentifier=3023191

Haz click aquí y baja tu Colesterol
Ponle Corazón y revisa las últimas noticias sobre investigaciones clínicas, avances médicos y valiosas guías para el manejo del colesterol
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CARDIOLOGÍA
Revista Medica en Inglés
The New England Journal of Medicine
Medic
Medical Education Information Center
VALVULAS CARDIACAS
Las válvulas que controlan el flujo de la sangre por el corazón son cuatro:

La válvula tricúspide controla el flujo sanguíneo entre la aurícula derecha y el ventrículo derecho.

La válvula pulmonar controla el flujo sanguíneo del ventrículo derecho a las arterias pulmonares, las cuales transportan la sangre a los pulmones para oxigenarla.

La válvula mitral permite que la sangre rica en oxígeno proveniente de los pulmones pase de la aurícula izquierda al ventrículo izquierdo.

La válvula aórtica permite que la sangre rica en oxígeno pase del ventrículo izquierdo a la aorta, la arteria más grande del cuerpo, la cual transporta la sangre al resto del organismo.

CONSEJOS UTILES PARA BAJAR EL COLESTEROL

SE DEBE COMER MENOS DE:

- Grasas saturadas (cerdo, cordero, fiambres, tocino, mantequilla, quesos grasos, nata)
- Alimentos que aporten colesterol (yema de huevos, sesos, menudillos, crustáceos, huevas de pescado.
- Alimentos hipercalóricos (azúcar y derivados, helados, mermeladas, chocolate, miel, pasteles) así como excesos de aceites, salsas, mantecas, foie gras y patés.
- Utilización excesiva de sal y alimentos preparados y conservados en sal (salazones y conservas)
- Alimentos picantes, especias en general y los alimentos muy condimentados y fermentados.


MODERAR LA INGESTA DE:

- Bebidas alcohólicas y excitantes (café, té), así como refrescantes azucaradas.


- La suficiente cantidad de leche (no excederse con la leche entera) y derivados (yogur, queso).







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